The Reality of the Resistance
The spirit of the Resistance to tyranny is ingrained in many people, but active resistance to occupying forces, whether German, Soviet or Japanese, was dangerous. Their reactions were swift and merciless.
This exhibition explores the many forms resistance took, from owning a radio, printing newsletters and carrying messages, to sabotage and assassination. It features the Museum’s extensive collection of resistance and intelligence artifacts, which is one of the largest in the world. The human stories are woven throughout the exhibition which is organized thematically and geographically. More than 200 pieces are on display.
The popularity of Anthony Doerr’s Pulitzer Prize-winning All the Light We Cannot See attests to the fascination we have with the lives of those who resisted their occupiers. This exhibition focuses on resistance in France, as well as in many other countries which were occupied by enemy forces.
The Power of Anti-Semitism; The March to the Holocaust, 1919-1939
The original documents and objects on display date from 1919 to 1939. It is an uncomfortable truth that Hitler came to power by building substantial popular support amongst German voters. The exhibition shows some of the unique and commonplace objects that illustrate the nature, breadth and depth of Nazi ideology. They show the extent to which increasingly virulent propaganda saturated German life during these years.
See the story of told through 61 objects at an exhibition titled “Anti-Semitism 1919-1939” at the New-York Historical Society. The stories told by the objects are crucial for understanding Nazism because, rather than focusing on the horror of the Holocaust, and spotlight the hundreds of thousands of individual decisions that made the Holocaust possible in the first place.
Most Secret: Rudolf Hess’s Own Archive
From the wealth of the Museum’s Archives, these documents once belonged to Hess and include artifacts from his mysterious mission to England in 1941. There are more than 300 documents and letters in the Museum’s Archives, many of them in Hess’s clear handwriting.
A year ago, an archive of over 300 pages surfaced in Hamburg, Germany. These were clearly Rudolf Hess’s personal files that he had with him when he was transferred to Nuremberg at the end of the War. The German magazine, Der Spiegel, calling the discovery of papers a “sensational find,” stated: “Ever since that day there has been much puzzlement over what exactly prompted the Third Reich’s third-most powerful man to travel Scotland, what he hoped to achieve on his own authority or had the backing of Adolf Hitler, or had even been ordered by Hitler to fly to Britain. Hess was carrying such a file, stamped in red with ‘Most Secret,’ when he was transferred in October 1945 from British custody to the Trial of Major War Criminals in Nuremberg. Excerpts of the documents found their way into the evidence published by the International Military Tribunal as well as a list of the remaining documents in the file. But since the trial, the whole volume has been missing.”
Hitler Attacks, Churchill Rises
May 10th was the day that Winston Churchill became Prime Minister, a day he describes in his memories as one he had been preparing for all his life. To him, it was destiny. King George VI asked Churchill, that very day, to form a new government. More than ready, Churchill burst forth with energy, insight and understanding of the British people. He had understood the menace of Hitler when no one else did, and now he understood the courage and fortitude of the British working people as no other upper class politician did.
Churchill was immediately thrown into what was shaping up as the Battle for France. He took control of the British military and flew to Paris to bolster French morale and review the military situation. On May 19th, he wrote a “MOST IMMEDIATE” message to French Prime Minister Paul Reynaud. Two days later, Churchill was telling Reynaud how to fight against German tanks. Too soon, the Allied armies were being trapped along the coast surrounding Dunkirk. Flotillas of thousands of ships and of all sizes were evacuating hundreds of thousands of troops to England. All the while, the Luftwaffe was attacking the boats and the troops on the beach, killing thousands. Finally, on the last day before the Germans overran Dunkirk, in another message to Reynaud and French General Maxime Weygand, Churchill writes with irritation: “…You don’t seem to understand at all that the British fighter aviation has been worn to a shred and frightfully mixed up by the need of maintaining standing patrols over Dunkirk without which the evacuation would have been impossible… You have no right to ask us to deprive ourselves of the sole means of continuing the war by casting away in a single battle the already small forces upon which we rely as the sole sure hope of ultimate victory to us both.”
The Director of the Churchill Museum in London considers this one of the finest and most important Churchill letters ever written.
German Enigma Code Machines
Capturing Enigma machines has been the main plot of several movies, but the role of Alan Turing, the intuitive and mathematical genius credited with inventing the modern computer, in breaking the German code was brought to life and to the attending of the general public thanks to the recently released (and Academy Award nominated) movie, The Imitation Game.
In our own form of The Imitation Game, we are opening a special exhibition of the most comprehensive collection of Enigma code machines on display in the United States, outside of the National Security Agency. Eight different Enigma code machines are in the exhibition, including one of three known Enigmas with a printer, one of five known Siemens ten-rotor code machines made for the German High Command, a U-Boat four-rotor Enigma, and an Army three-rotor Enigma that was blown apart by retreating forces— one of the reasons they are so rare.
The King’s Speech
Even before the Academy Award winning movie, The King’s Speech, nearly everyone knew what those three words referred to. Seventy-five years ago, on September 3, 1939, King George VI told the British nation that what they all dreaded had happened; barely 20 years after the official end of the Great War (there was no need to number it) England was at war again with Germany. The nation that had lost an entire generation of young men had believed Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain’s proclamation of “Peace in our Time” when he returned from Munich only a year earlier.
The King’s speech had to not only tell the English people that they were at war again with Germany, it had to also instill confidence in the nation. First, it had to be delivered on the radio live (there was no pre-recording at the time) by a confident King who suffered from terrible stammering. Regardless of what personal understanding people might have had, they needed, the nation needed, an unwavering leader in the months before Churchill became Prime Minister; King George VI had to be that person.
This three page carbon typescript has notation in pencil, “Intermediate draft of the King’s speech on the outbreak of war. I did the first draft, a good bit of which remains – but spoiled by translation into long sentences. Spoken stuff should be short winded. H[arold] V[ale] R[hodes].” (Rhodes played an important role in setting up the Ministry of Information in 1939.)
The 75th Anniversary of the Start of World War II
Germany’s attack on Poland brought the inevitability that England and France had not wanted to face — the reality of a rearmed and united Germany. Political leaders had tried to ignore Hitler’s words and actions as another war was unthinkable. War was not unthinkable to Hitler and other Nazi leaders; it was the chance to vindicate German honor and seek revenge against France, Germany’s arch enemy and architect of the hated Versailles Treaty.
In these three critical documents, never exhibited in the Museum before, Britain’s realization that war was imminent is seen in the draft of the King’s Speech (August 25, 1939) and in the cipher message to British forces (September 1, 1939.) The outbreak of the greatest cataclysm in the history of the world is seen in the Admiralty’s order (September 3, 1939) in only six word: ”Commence hostilities at once with Germany.”
D-Day: The 70th Anniversary of the Invasion of Europe
The Museum’s archives contain the most comprehensive collection of British and American plans for the invasion. Many of these will be on display, along with a selection of original photographs taken on D-Day, together with reconnaissance photos from water-level and by aircraft.
The Museum’s completely original Higgins Boat LCVP (Landing Craft, Vehicle, Personnel), one of less than ten known to have survived, will be on view, during the special exhibition.
Throughout America, there will be many news stories about the heroes of D-Day, but every surviving soldier will all say the same thing — they weren’t heroes; the heroes are in the famed American cemetery at Omaha Beach. No exhibit, no news stories can ever give a sense of all the good in the world that depended on the success of the D-Day invasion of Europe. It was a day that saved the world from evil.
The Failed Artist
The Museum is opening a special exhibition February 1st, 2014, based on Robert Edsel’s ground-breaking books on the Monuments Men. Edsel began a recent lecture at Boston’s Museum of Fine Art, with slides of paintings by Hitler, and comments that Hitler’s rejection by the Vienna Art Academic blocked his artistic career and set him adrift.
Our exhibition opens with the contents of Hitler’s artist studio in his Munich apartment— watercolor paints, paint brushes, sketch books, drafting tools, and a number of watercolors — an eerie window into the very personal world of Adolf Hitler. The contents of his apartment were left to his long-time housekeeper, Anny Brunner-Winter, in his will. After the War, the Bavarian government confiscated everything and, after protracted court proceedings, she prevailed and they came to us intact. Hitler’s apartment building at 16 Prinzgrasse, like much of Munich, was not damaged by bombs and is, today, a special police headquarters.