The Munich Agreement was British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain’s attempt to deflect war with Nazi Germany. It permitted the Germans to annex what was called the Sudetenland, an area within Czechoslovakia where German-speakers lived. Germany, Italy, France, and Britain signed it on September 30, 1938; the Soviets and the Czechs were not invited to participate. That same day, Chamberlain announced that he had won “peace for our time.” Less than six months later, in March 1939, German troops marched into the remainder of Czechoslovakia and annexed it to the German Reich. In September 1939 Hitler invaded Poland.