Battle of Britain
Britain declared war on Germany two days after the Nazis invaded Poland in September 1939. When Churchill refused Hitler’s demand that Britain not interfere in his plans to conquer Europe, he sent the Luftwaffe over the English Channel to attack in July 1940. The ensuing fight, named the Battle of Britain, took place entirely in the air. The Royal Air Force (RAF) fended off Nazi attempts to cripple its resources, dealing Hitler his first major defeat in World War II. Despite the military loss, Germany continued to bomb British cities until May 1941 in an air-raid campaign dubbed The Blitz. Between 40,000 and 43,000 British citizens died in these bombings.